Small Space Gardens and the Influence of Modernism
We’ve got small garden spaces on the brain — specifically in areas that are adjacent to the house, condo or apartment. Many people don’t have more space to work with than a porch or terrace. And if they do have more space, they tend to spend most of their time close to the house anyway. To address these realities, we’ve been talking to landscape designers and architects and listening to their ideas about the best way to design with plants in these areas.
A History of Modern Gardens
We spoke with Charles Birnbaum, President and Founder of The Cultural Landscape Foundation. We wanted his insight on gardens that are enclosed by or right next to the house’s architecture because that topic is relevant to one of his areas of expertise: the history of modern gardens. He reminded us of Thomas Church and the other greats of modernism.
“Look at Church’s career, or Garrett Eckbo or Robert Royston. All of them got their start doing small, in-town enclosed garden spaces.”
He noted that, as their ambitions grew, they abandoned those for major landscapes, like public spaces. However, the principles that had driven them early on influenced not just their large projects but the way designers handle small gardens now, seventy or more years later.
The houses and gardens of modernism were designed to work together, to flow into each other. This way, the people living there could experience a connection with the outdoors when they were inside, and the safety and comfort of home when they were outside.
The Functional Garden
Laura Livingston, a landscape contractor who installed the restoration of Church’s design for the garden at Castro Adobe in Watsonville, California, notes how functional the garden is.
“We followed the original plan closely, based on research done by landscape architect Pam-Anela Messenger. The garden was designed strictly for residential use, but now that fundraising for Castro Adobe is a consideration, events are held in the garden to raise money for the remainder of the house’s restoration,” explains Livingston. “We didn’t make changes to the garden to allow for events, but because it’s such a good garden, it works. That’s the thing about Church, his gardens allowed for so many possibilities for how the space would be used.”
The garden also shows how tightly Church’s projects were tethered to the architecture. Cork oaks that he placed in close proximity to the house are now mature. When you relax on a bench in the garden, you look toward the house and see light filtering through the tree branches.
“It’s clear that he thought about that view, not just the vantage point from the house out to the garden,” says Livingston.
The St. Francis bird bath is placed in original location, on axis with a path leading from the house to benches. This very simple, elegant garden, first constructed between 1968 and 1972, has all the trappings of a garden any of us would hope to have today. It has trees for shade, flowering plants to tend, places to sit, walk and play — all within a stone’s throw of the indoors.
Church’s emphasis on the act of gardening is what distinguishes this garden (and his others) from a landscape. A landscaper herself, Livingston often installs a fairly narrow palette of landscape plants, so she was struck by the detailed plant list (most of which were chosen by Church’s client Mrs. Potter) that she chased down for the installation.
“There are particular varieties of iris that were used, and I was only able to find two or three out of ten, as well as certain roses, narcissus, lavenders, and an apricot tree. Plant names change, patents get lost or expire, and this makes it really hard to track down the varieties,” she explains. “The plan also called for the use of seeds, which you hardly ever see anymore. It was obvious that the goal wasn’t to make a low-maintenance garden. It has to be taken care of.”